The municipal elections of April 12, 1931, proved that the great cities were overwhelmingly Republican. Nevertheless, five years later the country plunged itself into a gory civil war. This led various republican factions from a wide variety of backgrounds, including old conservatives and socialists, to join forces. The Spanish Second Republic Read this doc on Scribd: Causes of the Spanish Civil War Worksheet to accompany the interactive unit at www.activehistory.co.uk / 1 1931-1936: Why did the Spanish Second Republic Fail? "Revisando el revisionismo. The Second Spanish Republic Timeline created by jay0034. If anything, they became even more extremist over time and were quick to take advantage of any opportunity to seize power. Key Terms Francisco Franco A Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death.  Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. The army was reduced. During the Spanish Civil War, there were three governments. , With the new constitution approved in December 1931, once the constituent assembly had fulfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, it should have arranged for regular parliamentary elections and adjourned.  The right had firmly believed, at all levels, that they would win. Certain liberal elements would remain, such as separation of church and state as well as freedom of religion. Stanley Payne brings his immense knowledge of Spanish history to bear on the five-year span of the Second Republic as a historic entity in its own right. Despite receiving the most votes, CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year. Already have an account? His body was dropped at the entrance of one of the city's cemeteries.  Miners in Asturias occupied the capital, Oviedo, killing officials and clergymen. First of all it extended and improved the Labour Arbitration Scheme, which increased wages for the underpaid labourers. It was a bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate the occasion. Landowners were expropriated.  A general strike was called by the UGT and the PSOE in the name of the Alianza Obrera. , The majority vote in the 1933 elections was won by the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). Esdaile, Charles J. Cambridge University Press, 2017, p-17, Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Background of the Spanish Civil War § Second Republic, Background of the Spanish Civil War § The "black biennium", German involvement in the Spanish Civil War, Coat of Arms of the Second Spanish Republic, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic, "abc.es: "La quema de iglesias durante la Segunda República" 10 May 2012", Perspectives on religious freedom in Spain, "A History of Spain and Portugal (Print Edition)", "24 horas - Stanley G. Payne: "Las elecciones del 36, durante la Republica, fueron un fraude, "The Spanish Civil War exhibition: Mainline text", "La Pasionaria's Farewell Message to the International Brigade fighters", https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/29428326.pdf, Constitución de la República Española (1931), English Translation of the Constitution of the Spanish Republic (1931), Pro-Republic, 75th Anniversary Manifiesto, Original article from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, History of the republic and the victory of the Popular Front in elections, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Spanish_Republic&oldid=999838406, States and territories established in 1931, States and territories disestablished in 1939, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Spain articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 05:52. Tough GCSE topics broken down and explained by out team of expert teachers, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing with help from our teachers, Get your head around tough topics at A-level with our teacher written guides, Start writing remarkable essays with guidance from our expert teacher team, Understand the tough topics in IB with our teacher written Study Guides, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing from our experienced teachers, Struggling with an assignment?  Two days later, the Second Republic was proclaimed, and King Alfonso XIII went into exile. - Israel then took the Old City and West Bank. It also effectively disestablished the Roman Catholic Church, but the disestablishment was somewhat reversed by the Cortes that same year. Over the years, historians kept lowering the death figures and modern research concluded that 500,000 deaths were the correct figure. GCSE resources with teacher and student feedback, AS and A Level resources with teacher and student feedback, International Baccalaureate resources with teacher and student feedback, University resources with teacher and student feedback. " Pope Pius XI condemned the Spanish government's deprivation of the civil liberties of Catholics in the encyclical Dilectissima Nobis. With Spanish territory increasingly falling into Nationalist hands, the Republic's tenuous existence was further threatened by economic bankruptcy and sheer physical starvation. The failure of a Republican military rising at Jaca (December 12, 1930) saved them from having to establish a republic by force. Stanley Payne brings his immense knowledge of Spanish history to bear on the five-year span of the Second Republic as a historic entity in its own right. This could mean that this party might have followed Caballero?s suggestions or to show Spain what their mentality was. The Socialists triggered an insurrection that they had been preparing for nine months. Franco also approached Valladares to propose the declaration of martial law and calling out of the army. Alfonso XIII became increasingly autocratic and in 1909 was condemned for ordering the execution of the radical leader, Ferrer Guardia, in Barcelona. Republicans of all tendencies were committed to the Pact of San Sebastian in overthrowing the monarchy and establishing a republic. The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it.  After a year of intense pressure, CEDA, the largest party in the congress, was finally successful in forcing the acceptance of three ministries. The Second Republic failed largely because it approached many of Spain's problems with impractical solutions. On 7 January 1936, new elections were called. Military reform headed by a politician (and civilian), however, did cause alarm. Landowners were expropriated. The country rapidly descended into anarchy. Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. However the entrance of CEDA in the government, although being normal in a parliamentary democracy, was not well accepted by the left. The Pact of San Sebastián was the key to the transition from monarchy to republic. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and a Constitutional Republic was formally established. In a speech delivered on 27 November 1932, at the Madrid Ateneo, he protested: "Even the Inquisition was limited by certain legal guarantees. (15 mins) Debate each of these statements as a class. , In June 1931 a Constituent Cortes was elected to draft a new constitution, which came into force in December. Although much of rural Spain elected pro-monarchist politicians, everyone, including King Alfonso XIII, knew that local caciques (local town bosses) controlled the vote. Violence would be required to destroy opposition to the coup, though it seems Mola did not envision the mass atrocities and repression that would ultimately manifest during the civil war. Calvo Sotelo was one of the most prominent Spanish monarchists who, describing the government's actions as Bolshevist and anarchist, had been exhorting the army to intervene, declaring that Spanish soldiers would save the country from communism if "there are no politicians capable of doing so". Transatlantic Antifascisms: From the Spanish Civil War to the End of World War II. Spain-Barcelona for information on the Second Republic in Spanish History, its dates and important historical events. In response a group of Guardia de Asalto and other leftist militiamen led by Civil Guard Fernando Condés, after getting the approval of the minister of interior to illegally arrest a list of members of parliament, went to right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo's house in the early hours of 13 July on a revenge mission. Die Zweite Spanische Republik (spanisch Segunda República Española [seˌɣunda reˈpuβlika espaˌɲola]) bezeichnet in Spanien die Epoche von 1931 bis 1936 bzw. But without the money to carry out its promises, the Republic lost yet more support, this time from the working class. In face of CEDA's electoral victory, President Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Gil Robles, to form a government, fearing CEDA's monarchist sympathies. This is not the road to socialism or communism but to desperate anarchism without even the advantage of liberty. Soon, though, the rebels began to erode their territory, starving Madrid and making inroads into the east. Created by teachers, our study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know. This was only made worse due to Spanish exports being extremely low and Spain having a heavily domestic manufacturing industry.  Largo Caballero and other elements of the political left were not prepared to work with the republicans, although they did agree to support much of the proposed reforms.  The Spanish historian Salvador de Madariaga, an Azaña's supporter, and an exiled vocal opponent of Francisco Franco is the author of a sharp critical reflection against the participation of the left in the revolt: "The uprising of 1934 is unforgivable.  Valladares resigned, even before a new government could be formed. Spain was indeed “different,” but only in the most exemplary way. Instead, they initiated a slow and determined war of attrition against the Republican government in Madrid. Even the staunch socialist Indalecio Prieto at a party rally in Cuenca, in May 1936, complained: "we have never seen so tragic a panorama or so great a collapse as in Spain at this moment.  Thirty thousand workers were mobilized for battle within ten days. In face of CEDA's electoral victory, president Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Gil Robles, to form a government. The Republican government survived in exile, and retained an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. A "Catalan State" was proclaimed by Catalan nationalist leader Lluis Companys, but it lasted just ten hours. The constitution of The Second Spanish Republic was groundbreaking in the history of Spain and changed the face of the country. Fraude y violencia en las elecciones del Frente Popular." Agrarian Reform Law Apr 1, 1931. As a result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the war that followed. 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