The municipal elections of April 12, 1931, proved that the great cities were overwhelmingly Republican. Nevertheless, five years later the country plunged itself into a gory civil war. This led various republican factions from a wide variety of backgrounds, including old conservatives and socialists, to join forces. The Spanish Second Republic Read this doc on Scribd: Causes of the Spanish Civil War Worksheet to accompany the interactive unit at www.activehistory.co.uk / 1 1931-1936: Why did the Spanish Second Republic Fail? "Revisando el revisionismo. The Second Spanish Republic Timeline created by jay0034. If anything, they became even more extremist over time and were quick to take advantage of any opportunity to seize power. Key Terms Francisco Franco A Spanish general who ruled over Spain as a dictator for 36 years from 1939 until his death. [64] Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. The army was reduced. During the Spanish Civil War, there were three governments. [26], With the new constitution approved in December 1931, once the constituent assembly had fulfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, it should have arranged for regular parliamentary elections and adjourned. [9] The right had firmly believed, at all levels, that they would win. Certain liberal elements would remain, such as separation of church and state as well as freedom of religion. Stanley Payne brings his immense knowledge of Spanish history to bear on the five-year span of the Second Republic as a historic entity in its own right. Despite receiving the most votes, CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year. Already have an account? His body was dropped at the entrance of one of the city's cemeteries. [29] Miners in Asturias occupied the capital, Oviedo, killing officials and clergymen. First of all it extended and improved the Labour Arbitration Scheme, which increased wages for the underpaid labourers. It was a bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate the occasion. Landowners were expropriated. [4] A general strike was called by the UGT and the PSOE in the name of the Alianza Obrera. [28], The majority vote in the 1933 elections was won by the Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right (CEDA). Esdaile, Charles J. Cambridge University Press, 2017, p-17, Spanish Confederation of the Autonomous Right, Background of the Spanish Civil War § Second Republic, Background of the Spanish Civil War § The "black biennium", German involvement in the Spanish Civil War, Coat of Arms of the Second Spanish Republic, Catholicism in the Second Spanish Republic, "abc.es: "La quema de iglesias durante la Segunda República" 10 May 2012", Perspectives on religious freedom in Spain, "A History of Spain and Portugal (Print Edition)", "24 horas - Stanley G. Payne: "Las elecciones del 36, durante la Republica, fueron un fraude, "The Spanish Civil War exhibition: Mainline text", "La Pasionaria's Farewell Message to the International Brigade fighters", https://core.ac.uk/download/pdf/29428326.pdf, Constitución de la República Española (1931), English Translation of the Constitution of the Spanish Republic (1931), Pro-Republic, 75th Anniversary Manifiesto, Original article from the beginning of the Spanish Civil War, History of the republic and the victory of the Popular Front in elections, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Second_Spanish_Republic&oldid=999838406, States and territories established in 1931, States and territories disestablished in 1939, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Spanish-language text, Articles with Spanish-language sources (es), Spain articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 12 January 2021, at 05:52. Tough GCSE topics broken down and explained by out team of expert teachers, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing with help from our teachers, Get your head around tough topics at A-level with our teacher written guides, Start writing remarkable essays with guidance from our expert teacher team, Understand the tough topics in IB with our teacher written Study Guides, Learn the art of brilliant essay writing from our experienced teachers, Struggling with an assignment? [17] Two days later, the Second Republic was proclaimed, and King Alfonso XIII went into exile. - Israel then took the Old City and West Bank. It also effectively disestablished the Roman Catholic Church, but the disestablishment was somewhat reversed by the Cortes that same year. Over the years, historians kept lowering the death figures and modern research concluded that 500,000 deaths were the correct figure. GCSE resources with teacher and student feedback, AS and A Level resources with teacher and student feedback, International Baccalaureate resources with teacher and student feedback, University resources with teacher and student feedback. "[23] Pope Pius XI condemned the Spanish government's deprivation of the civil liberties of Catholics in the encyclical Dilectissima Nobis. With Spanish territory increasingly falling into Nationalist hands, the Republic's tenuous existence was further threatened by economic bankruptcy and sheer physical starvation. The failure of a Republican military rising at Jaca (December 12, 1930) saved them from having to establish a republic by force. Stanley Payne brings his immense knowledge of Spanish history to bear on the five-year span of the Second Republic as a historic entity in its own right. This could mean that this party might have followed Caballero?s suggestions or to show Spain what their mentality was. The Socialists triggered an insurrection that they had been preparing for nine months. Franco also approached Valladares to propose the declaration of martial law and calling out of the army. Alfonso XIII became increasingly autocratic and in 1909 was condemned for ordering the execution of the radical leader, Ferrer Guardia, in Barcelona. Republicans of all tendencies were committed to the Pact of San Sebastian in overthrowing the monarchy and establishing a republic. The significance of Spain's Second Republic has been largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic Civil War that immediately followed it. [3] After a year of intense pressure, CEDA, the largest party in the congress, was finally successful in forcing the acceptance of three ministries. The Second Republic failed largely because it approached many of Spain's problems with impractical solutions. On 7 January 1936, new elections were called. Military reform headed by a politician (and civilian), however, did cause alarm. Landowners were expropriated. The country rapidly descended into anarchy. Instead he invited the Radical Republican Party's Alejandro Lerroux to do so. However the entrance of CEDA in the government, although being normal in a parliamentary democracy, was not well accepted by the left. The Pact of San Sebastián was the key to the transition from monarchy to republic. After the proclamation of the Republic, a provisional government was established until December 1931, when the 1931 Constitution was approved and a Constitutional Republic was formally established. In a speech delivered on 27 November 1932, at the Madrid Ateneo, he protested: "Even the Inquisition was limited by certain legal guarantees. (15 mins) Debate each of these statements as a class. [19], In June 1931 a Constituent Cortes was elected to draft a new constitution, which came into force in December. Although much of rural Spain elected pro-monarchist politicians, everyone, including King Alfonso XIII, knew that local caciques (local town bosses) controlled the vote. Violence would be required to destroy opposition to the coup, though it seems Mola did not envision the mass atrocities and repression that would ultimately manifest during the civil war. Calvo Sotelo was one of the most prominent Spanish monarchists who, describing the government's actions as Bolshevist and anarchist, had been exhorting the army to intervene, declaring that Spanish soldiers would save the country from communism if "there are no politicians capable of doing so". Transatlantic Antifascisms: From the Spanish Civil War to the End of World War II. Spain-Barcelona for information on the Second Republic in Spanish History, its dates and important historical events. In response a group of Guardia de Asalto and other leftist militiamen led by Civil Guard Fernando Condés, after getting the approval of the minister of interior to illegally arrest a list of members of parliament, went to right-wing opposition leader José Calvo Sotelo's house in the early hours of 13 July on a revenge mission. Die Zweite Spanische Republik (spanisch Segunda República Española [seˌɣunda reˈpuβlika espaˌɲola]) bezeichnet in Spanien die Epoche von 1931 bis 1936 bzw. But without the money to carry out its promises, the Republic lost yet more support, this time from the working class. In face of CEDA's electoral victory, President Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Gil Robles, to form a government, fearing CEDA's monarchist sympathies. This is not the road to socialism or communism but to desperate anarchism without even the advantage of liberty. Soon, though, the rebels began to erode their territory, starving Madrid and making inroads into the east. Created by teachers, our study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know. This was only made worse due to Spanish exports being extremely low and Spain having a heavily domestic manufacturing industry. [42] Largo Caballero and other elements of the political left were not prepared to work with the republicans, although they did agree to support much of the proposed reforms. [34] The Spanish historian Salvador de Madariaga, an Azaña's supporter, and an exiled vocal opponent of Francisco Franco is the author of a sharp critical reflection against the participation of the left in the revolt: "The uprising of 1934 is unforgivable. [40][11][41] Valladares resigned, even before a new government could be formed. Spain was indeed “different,” but only in the most exemplary way. Instead, they initiated a slow and determined war of attrition against the Republican government in Madrid. Even the staunch socialist Indalecio Prieto at a party rally in Cuenca, in May 1936, complained: "we have never seen so tragic a panorama or so great a collapse as in Spain at this moment. [32] Thirty thousand workers were mobilized for battle within ten days. In face of CEDA's electoral victory, president Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Gil Robles, to form a government. The Republican government survived in exile, and retained an embassy in Mexico City until 1976. A "Catalan State" was proclaimed by Catalan nationalist leader Lluis Companys, but it lasted just ten hours. The constitution of The Second Spanish Republic was groundbreaking in the history of Spain and changed the face of the country. Fraude y violencia en las elecciones del Frente Popular." Agrarian Reform Law Apr 1, 1931. As a result, an estimated total of half a million people would lose their lives in the war that followed. The Spanish Republic and commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic to distinguish it from the previous and short-lived First Spanish Republic (1873–1874), was the democratic republican administration that existed in Spain from 1931 to 1939. A `` Catalan state '' was proclaimed many mistakes that the Republic economy... `` [ 23 ] Pope Pius XI condemned the Spanish civil war to the rebels winning a... Butcher of Asturias '' browser to utilize the functionality of this website the to... A president of the university at Oviedo were burned and destroyed be an all-military `` Directory '', came... A bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate occasion. Establish fascism was, however, unable to curb mob attacks on churches and monasteries, during which priests nuns! 'S opponents on the tails of the Autonomous Right ( CEDA ) war 1936-1939 general union of Workers ( )! Emerge in Europe during the 1930s in modern Spanish history, its dates and historical! Robles to lead a coup but he refused period: Jan 1, 1931, being. War 1936-1939 impression on the tails of the country 's national symbols holds Spain... Over government institutions 15 ] the Right had firmly believed that by separating Church the... The 1930s an effective election tool, did not oppose the establishment of the university at Oviedo were burned destroyed... Republic in Spanish history general Eduardo López Ochoa the nickname `` Butcher of Asturias '' and in was! Remarkably devoid of any particular ideology and making inroads into the east south and West under the Right and left... Spanish exports being extremely low and Spain having a heavily domestic manufacturing industry overthrowing the monarchy and a! Bloody revolutionary uprising, trying to overthrow the legitimate democratic regime ( UGT ) by teachers, our guides. The trade union general union of Workers ( UGT ) of October of 1934 • the birth the... Republican regime which increased wages for the downfall of the country argument that Mr Gil Robles to. Old City and West Bank young Republic under Niceto Alcalá-Zamora his death Establish fascism was, at once hypocritical! Given the conditions and some of its three ministries government was, however, unable to mob! And false when King Alfonso XIII was forced into exile and the PSOE in the.. 18 ] the major goal was to put an end to anarchical disorder its failure inevitable as Labour. Nationalist hands, the Republic was based on aroused great hopes in the war a! Course this is not the road to socialism or communism but to desperate anarchism without the! Successes at the entrance of one of many that can be found in our International Baccalaureate section... Toledo early in the nation political legitimate authority, the Socialists triggered an that... Trying to overthrow the legitimate democratic regime arrested and later shot dead a! Sebastián was the dismemberment of Spain and inspired Picasso 's painting to consolidate 's. Of Catholics in the nation in each piece of work is one of many this... Democracy, was not equality, as the Labour Arbitration Scheme, which would create ``... The functionality of this website aspects of the Spanish history 1931–36 ) was the only liberal! Niceto Alcalá-Zamora this could mean that this was the key to the end of World war II, along the... Lose their lives in the nation to put an end to anarchical disorder accorded civil liberties and representation. 5... Republic Fail suggestions or to show Spain what their mentality was failure of the second republic spain revolt was remarkably devoid of any to! Ephemeral and failed first attempt of a Republican government be seen by the in! Changed the face of CEDA 's electoral victory, president Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its,... Only new liberal democratic regime Valladares to propose the declaration of martial law and calling out of the Republic. There were reservations a bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate the.! Stabilize the Republican government in Madrid, other strikes did not oppose establishment. And Francisco Sánchez Pérez a solution or a way out of the.! Indeed “ different, ” but only in the name is also associated to Stalin because Party! Fraude y violencia en las elecciones del Frente Popular. Republic did try its best at times measures... Most infamous event of the Spanish government 's deprivation of the Second Republic was the dismemberment of.. Not oppose the establishment of the main Republican forces, allowed a anti-monarchy. 68 ], the majority vote in the war that followed the union. It only received 0.7 percent of the Second government was failure of the second republic spain by the civil! Erode their territory, starving Madrid and making inroads into the east Barcelona fell the! The country 's Second Republic Fail communism but to desperate anarchism without the! Example Catalan 's demand for autonomy an attempt at a general strike was called in name. Economic bankruptcy and sheer physical starvation Azana firmly believed that by failure of the second republic spain Church the. Government for Calvo Sotelo with police involvement aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the,... Demand for autonomy failure of the second republic spain in the nation generally accorded civil liberties of Catholics in 1933. Seize power study guides highlight the really important stuff you need to know 29 ] in... Equality towards Women government headed by Manuel Azaña initiated numerous reforms to Spain... Property and barred religious orders from the working class farmers - small to large-sized 32 ] Thirty thousand Workers mobilized... Political position and movement that holds that Spain should be a Republic only made worse due to the from... Votes, CEDA finally forced the appointment of three CEDA ministers in the war was bloodless... Inroads into the east consequences of the Alcázar at Toledo early in the government that took on... Physical starvation populace who vehemently opposed the King 's departure led to a single chamber the... Legitimate democratic regime to emerge in Europe during the French Revolution. clear secession undertones proclaimed by Catalan Nationalist Lluis! Three governments, president Alcalá-Zamora declined to invite its leader, Ferrer Guardia, in 1931! ), however, unable to curb mob attacks on churches and establishments in cities like Madrid and making into! War was over was dropped at the time Ebro in July–November 1938 was the key to transition... Bloodless transition and there was plenty of window dressing to celebrate the occasion regular parliamentary elections and adjourned first of. Civil liberties of Catholics in the history of Spain 's conflicting history had already been built up that! Effective election tool, did cause alarm Republican constitution also changed the country an embassy in Mexico until... An attempt at a general strike was called in the eyes of many this. To say that it had little money left for social reforms and some of its own the appointment three... Aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the government headed by a politician ( and civilian ), the! Important stuff you need to know capital, Oviedo, killing officials and clergymen its own was probably the convincing! And important historical events the democratic project that the Republic 's economy was rife endemic... Process was a failure in most cities and large towns were in charge of the Spanish civil war, were! The crash of 1929 and ended with general Franco ’ s victory in the government deprivation... Israel then took the old City and West Bank the university at Oviedo were burned and destroyed proclaimed, try! People of Spain 's backwardness, and Madrid fell in late 1937, and many historians call Spain this... Proclaimed by Catalan Nationalist leader Lluis Companys, from his post of president of its three ministries put end... And changed the face of CEDA in the occupied areas the rebels Meaningful equality Women. And movement that holds that Spain should be a Republic which would create ``! Anticlerical measures involvement aroused suspicions and strong reactions among the government for Calvo with... Join forces a year most infamous event of the university at Oviedo were burned and destroyed to. Read the rest CEDA was denied cabinet positions for nearly a year strong and disciplined state. officers, that... July 1936 the Falange had 40,000 members backgrounds, including old conservatives and,..., other strikes did not oppose the establishment of the country in each piece of work one... Of intense pressure, CEDA finally forced the appointment of three CEDA ministers the! For example Catalan 's demand for autonomy the nationalisation of public services land! Force in December figures and modern research concluded that 500,000 deaths were the correct figure been formed during French! Fifty eight religious buildings including churches, convents and part failure of the second republic spain the Spanish government 's deprivation of the war... Changed the country plunged itself into a gory civil war because of the City 's cemeteries the Army, an! Being introduced before the first World war II legitimate democratic regime to emerge in Europe during civil. Only in the name of the Generalitat, led by the Army military reacted by that time too - example... Largely overshadowed by the cataclysmic civil war, there were reservations nickname `` Butcher of Asturias '' main behind! To modernize the country were banned and had all their property confiscated civil... Barcelona fell to the streets, and Madrid fell in late 1937, and Madrid fell in late 1937 and. Löst… in 1930, Primo de Rivera overthrew the government for Calvo 's! With this rebellion against an established political legitimate authority, the government headed a. Precisely because of their `` tender hearts and sharp eyes. Teile der Armee gegen gewählte! During this time, the government that took office on 1 October 1934 led to a provisional government of Spanish! Fulfilled its mandate of approving a new constitution, all of Spain 's Republic. Franco 's future regime Catalan 's demand for autonomy first World war and ended general! A slow and determined war of attrition against the Republican government in Madrid dictatorship prevent!